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Tuesday, June 5, 2018

THE AMERICAN NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH CLANDESTINE HUMAN CLINICAL TRIALS


Bill and Melinda Gates' foundation finds Africa an easy penetrable place to test dangerous vaccines on children

Bill and Melinda Gates' Foundation finds Africa an easy penetrable place to test dangerous vaccines on children



President Donald Trump goes to war against American national health institutes as some journalists stated. And it's about time the so-called CDC's “Ministry of Truth” normally should fight Big Pharma, but there are many different trenches from which the hydra is attacking human health all over the world, especially in Africa.



But if all the heads aren’t attacked at once, the others will attack from another direction because in Africa many corrupt politicians and leaders add many more hydra to this fight. Underneath we will take Mexico as an example because there are criminal medical experiments out in the open. 

And because of that, they will find another path for their criminal behavior in Africa, a place where there aren't any rules at all but corrupt leaders who can be bribed for every medical trial they like.

No less than a total of 5,025 clinical tests, studies using human subjects, have been conducted in Mexico alone. Over half the studies have been carried out at centers of excellence and public hospitals, while the US government has to perform biomedical studies not only in Mexico but also in Africa using its health institutes. 

Conducting these medical tests on human subjects is backed by the pharmaceutical industry, notably companies like Pfizer, Eli Lilly and Company, Roche, Sanofi-Aventis, and AstraZeneca, some of which have been singled out for conduct that is “hardly ethical. 

In other countries, litigation has been commenced against transnational laboratories alleging irreparable damage to patients and violation of ethical principles during clinical experiments. 


American National Institute of Health 


To date, the American National Institute of Health NIH has carried out 120,753 clinical trials in 178 countries, including Mexico. According to NIH statistics, they carried out 1,549 studies in Mexico; of these only, 5% consisted of observational studies. 

In other words, 95% of the participants have been subject to interventions. But the 1,500 clinical tests that the NIH performed, are not the only ones being carried out in Mexico. 

Data from public health institutions, obtained through Ley Federal de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información Pública Gubernamental, disclose the existence of 3,476 studies at the very least, that have been conducted which are similar to these.

There are 12 public health institutions in the country, whose mandate is to provide highly specialized medical services and to conduct scientific research in the health sector. 

Clinical tests were carried out at nine Mexican institutes, namely:

• Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez
• Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán
• Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (INER)
• Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez
• Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes
• Nacional de Siquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz
• Nacional de Rehabilitación
• Nacional de Salud Pública
• Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez

The following hospitals are also carrying out this type of study: General de México and Juárez de México. Although all these public institutions admitted that they are carrying out clinical tests, the figure cited does not take into account all the studies carried out. This is because two institutions did not provide the relevant information. 

Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación

One of these was Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación. It only gave details of two tests (the only ones concluded) and omitted to specify how many more are in progress. It argued that this information was confidential for 12 years.

Hospital Infantil de México neither provided information on the quantity and characteristics of the clinical tests already conducted. With respect to the tests in progress, it also responded that these are classified as confidential.

As for Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, while it provided Contralínea with information on the number of research plans registered and carried out in the period 2005 – 2011, it did not specify which involved experimenting with humans.

Of the total of 3,476 clinical tests recorded in all the other institutes and hospitals, the following stand out;

Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, that records 1,398 studies of this type in the period 1985 – 2011.

Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, with 1,353 investigations from 1996 through to 2010.

As for the number of people that participated in this tests, not all the public institutions consulted provided accurate data. From the statistics provided, we deduce that there were at least 14,187 victims. 

But the number of Mexicans that took part in a clinical test could even be higher; so too, the number of studies of this type carried out in the country. And it should include local public health institutions, academic research centers, both public and private, clinics and private hospitals and laboratories that carry out biomedical studies.

In Mexico, the health authority must authorize the research protocol that supports it. Within Cofepris, the Comisión de Autorización Sanitaria has been put in charge of reviewing research protocols on humans. 

However, the reply was given by the Secretary-General and the Head of Unidad de Enlace de la Cofepris, José Rafael Fernández de Lara y Olivares only handed over information relating to 2011. In the year before, 538 authorizations were granted to carry out investigations on human beings.

American clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry

The information provided by Mexican health institutes, as well as the consultation on the basis of information provided by its US equals, reveals that most clinical trials taking place in the country are sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry.

With reference to Mexican public health institutions, twenty transnational pharmaceutical laboratories are behind almost half the studies that are being carried out. And as always the leading are:

• Merck (German)
• Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer (US)
• Glaxo SmithKline (English)
• Sanofi-Aventis (French/German)
• Roche (Swiss)

These companies have sponsored 299 clinical tests. Other laboratories that had more impact in carrying out this type of study in the country are: Eli Lilly and Company, AstraZeneca, Novartis, Schering-Plough, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Abbott, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Wyeth (from 2009, a subsidiary of Pfizer), Tibotec, Janssen, Kendle and Johnson & Johnson, all of foreign origin. 

While pharmaceutical laboratories are not the only ones carrying out clinical tests in Mexico, this group of twenty pooled together 46% of the 1,152 studies where the name of the sponsor is known.

However, the figure could vary, since it only takes account of information provided by the following institutions;

• Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes
• Nacional de Salud Pública
• Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán
• Hospital General de México

It did not include the 116 tests carried out in Instituto Nacional de Siquiatría in the period 1983 – 2011, given that this institution claims it auto-financed these tests.

Neither did they take into account the tests of Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, that totaled 224 (2001 – 2011). Of these, 156 were internal studies and therefore had nothing to do with any financing. 

Although the Institute indicates that 65 plans were implemented through agreements with private entities, it does not give the names.

Hospital Juárez de México, that began 78 clinical tests (2003- 2011), classified information about the sponsors as confidential, on the basis of a confidentiality agreement and the non-use of information that it has with the sponsors.

Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez also referred to a confidentiality agreement to justify refusing to provide the names of those sponsoring the clinical tests in progress.

In the case of Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, the information on the two research protocols concluded details that neither of them relied on external sponsorship. The data of the US Health Institutes is more instructive regarding the impact of the pharmaceutical industry: of 1,549 clinical tests undertaken in Mexico, 60% are sponsored by one of the laboratories mentioned.

But in contrast to the statistics reported by the national public health institutions, the pharmaceutical that financed the most studies in the country, through the US health system, is Pfizer. It and its subsidiary Wyeth have sponsored 156 trials. 

If we add the 61 tests that it financed through Mexican health institutes, the grand total is 217. This transforms it into the pharmaceutical company with the greatest impact on studies using human subjects in the country.

Nigeria and Mexico the promised lands for medical experiments

Considered the most important pharmaceutical laboratory in the world, Pfizer was the first to produce penicillin industrially and invented Viagra. However, it is also responsible for carrying out clinical trials in 1996 in Nigeria. 

It tested a drug called Trovan on persons afflicted by an epidemic of meningitis without informing them that the drug was still under trial.

This resulted in the death of 11 children and another 200 children with serious mental and physical deformities. Later on, we would find out from cables from the US embassy leaked by Wikileaks, that in April 2009, the US pharmaceutical had negotiated an agreement with the government of Nigeria to try to avoid the litigation Nigeria had initiated against it. 

Ultimately, the laboratory paid 75 million dollars to the families affected to avoid criminal proceedings going ahead.

NIH’s register discloses that the laboratories of Sanofi-Aventis have sponsored the second highest number of tests in the country. Here we have Europe’s most important pharmaceutical company, ranked number three in the world. 

It is present in Mexico not only on account of the drugs it is selling but also for the 167 clinical trials that it is carrying out (123 through US health institutes and 44 through Mexican institutes).

The US pharmaceuticals, Bristol-Myers Squibb and Eli Lilly and Company are also ranked among those that carry out the most clinical trials using human subjects in Mexico. 

The former financed 159 studies (98 through NIH, 61 through its Mexican equals), while the company established by the colonel and the pharmaceutical Eli Lilly has sponsored 136 clinical tests in the country.

Eli Lilly and Company, whose directors included the former US president George Bush, has been involved in various scandals that have raised ethical issues over its conduct. One of the best known is the case of Zyprexa, where it was held that the pharmaceutical had suppressed information that the drug might create a propensity to diabetes.

An article published in the US newspaper, The New York Times, on 17 December 2006, revealed that for a decade, the company had kept this information secret. This was because Zyprexa used to treat schizophrenia was the company’s best selling product.

Another scandal was the case of Fentress. Here a man, medicated with Prozac, an anti-depressant invented by the laboratory, fired an assault rifle at work, killing eight people and injuring another 12 before killing himself.

To avoid a judgment where a link might be established between the anti-depressant and suicidal tendencies, the company bribed the claimant’s lawyer so he would not present inculpatory evidence to the jury. 

Although the verdict was favorable to the pharmaceutical company, the judge referred the matter to the Supreme Court in Kentucky. This court set aside the ruling when it discovered the corruption in the judicial process.

In conformity with the Mexican report: the situation and perspectives of the ethical regulatory framework of the biomedical study and protection of subjects of the study, one of the biggest concerns over the practice of clinical tests is sponsorship by the pharmaceutical industry. This is due to the “reprehensible” conduct that has arisen.

The document refer by way of example to the laboratories approaching doctors directly to offer them money to recruit patients or to incorporate “virgin” patients, those who have never been subject to any prior medical treatment to treat their illness, in clinical tests or to carry out studies simply to promote products.

“This and other conduct have caused us to consider that the study sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry in general, the one which has the highest risk of flouting ethical standards,” rules the report issued by the Comisión Nacional de Bioética in 2006, and that forms part of the plan of the international network Euribor.

Furthermore, they have detected problems in the research protocols used by the pharmaceutical industry, since multi-site studies cannot necessarily be adapted to the legislative framework of each country and it is difficult to conform them to local standards.

For many years, US and European pharmaceutical companies conducted clinical tests in African and Asian countries, in particular, India. By outsourcing these clinical studies to India, pharmaceuticals have reduced their costs by as much as 60%. 

But the companies have discovered new “markets” that offer even lower costs to conduct their trials. One of these new destinations in Latin America. 

According to the article “Trials in Mexico: addressing the challenges,” published in Feb 2009, in Good Clinical Practice Journal (an English journal), most clinical tests nowadays are carried out in almost all African countries, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico.

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