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Friday, February 24, 2017

THE MYSTERY SURROUNDING NODDING DISEASE AND TREMORGENIC MYCOTOXIN


A nine-year-old victim of Nodding syndrome

A nine-year-old victim of Nodding syndrome





The outbreak of nodding disease in Tanzania, Uganda, parts of Kenya and Sudan has recorded thousands of deads. Unverified cases have also been reported indicating increasing geographical coverage and the age of onset was tightly clustered among children 5 and 15 years of age. The reported incidence became higher and the victims older during recent years.


Because of the enormous impact of this horrific disease, the Ministry of Health of Uganda requested international assistance in investigating and responding to the outbreaks. Therefore, a National Response Plan to Nodding Syndrome was developed by the Ugandan Government, which incorporated various research activities focused on the challenges of Nodding Syndrome.


The Ugandans requested further support from the World Health Organization to convene a scientific meeting that would facilitate the sharing and exchange of information on the illness in order to help shape public health activities and define a focused Nodding Syndrome research agenda.


Thus convened the World Health Organization's first scientific meeting on nodding syndrome in Kampala, Uganda, from July 30 to August 1, 2012; in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Uganda and the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Attendants to the meeting were representatives from related Ugandan ministries, such as the Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Disaster Preparedness, and Ministry of Information and National Guidance. 

Other Attendees were staff from training and research institutions, local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) supporting NS interventions, technical and bilateral partners, such as CDC, the Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and representatives from WHO.


Scientists investigating the cause of a disease that makes victims get sporadic seizures drip saliva and nod uncontrollably; have found crystal-like substances in portions of their brains. This discovery appeared during tests at the US Centres for Disease Control (CDC) laboratory in Atlanta.

Although unprecedented and still unexplained, scientists encouraged they may be closer to fully understand the mystery illness and its origin. The mentioned crystal-like substances that glittered under polarizing lights were observed in the pons, a part of the brainstem where the spinal cord connects.


Doctor Wun-Ju Shieh medical officer of CDC


Dr. Wun-Ju Shieh, the medical officer who led the CDC team that examined samples from the brain of five dead Ugandan children, reported these as “interesting preliminary histopathologic (microscopic examination) findings, although their significance is currently unknown.”


However, Dr. Wun-Ju Shieh, have you ever heard of Citrinin which especially affects the reproductive system of African women?


Citrinin a very toxic mycotoxin


One of the crystal-like substances is Citrinin, a mycotoxin which is often found in food. It is a secondary metabolite produced by fungi that contaminate long-stored food supplies and it causes a different toxic effect like nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Citrinin is mainly found in stored grains, but sometimes also in fruits and other plant products. Contaminated food supplies are often applied in refugee camps in nodding syndrome regions.


Moreover, while maximum levels for various mycotoxins were set for a number of food and feed products, the occurrence of citrinin is not regulated yet under these or other regulations within the European Union. Why? Because it is a biowarfare product shipped to the region by the USA and used by the Belgians in Rwanda and former Belgian Congo.


The types of toxicity that have been studied for citrinin are acute toxicity, nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity and its carcinogenicity. So if you want to depopulate Africa then this is the agent to use.
Citrinin induces micronuclei, aneuploidy, and chromosomal aberrations. In vivo, it induced chromosome abnormalities and hypodiploidy in the bone marrow which also causes Aids.


Citrinin a crystal-like glittering mycotoxin


The Centres for Disease Control in Atlanta was reported to be preparing for fresh toxicological sample tests on Ugandans but in another laboratory and not its own. This is a very strange development because Atlanta laboratories are very much able to detect biowarfare agents like crystal glittering mycotoxin.


However, the Ugandan officials declined to discuss CDC’s startling discovery of crystal-like substances in the brain of nodding victims, something Health minister Ruhakana Rugunda did not also highlight in his comprehensive update on the disease on May 13, 2014. Was it because authorities carried out aerial sprays along Pager, Aswa, and Agago rivers to kill black flies which bite is associated with some cases?


Scientists also evaluated whether nodding syndrome, observed in Tanzania in 1962 and lately more widespread in South Sudan, might be caused by tetramine poison associated with some toxic plants, vaccines, and chemical weapons. Of course, they did not discuss mycotoxin because a number of causes have been ruled out before the WHO scientific meeting was started. 

What was the reason? We all know that in many post-conflict communities are raising suspicion that bioweapons are used in the protracted which may have something to do with nodding disease.


A representative of the WHO answered: “Genetic predisposition and other potential infectious, environmental and toxicological hypothetical causes require further investigation.”


Ugandan Prime Minister Ruhakana


The countries afflicted by the disease are post-conflict and the use of bio-weapon could have a link to the disease. Prime Minister Ruhakana Rugunda, then the Health minister, said, “the affected people believe that Nodding Syndrome is due to evil spirits of the dead who were not buried, chemical effects of the prolonged Lord Resistance Army war, and LRA crimes committed against the neighboring communities.”


An answer to that statement was raised by Dr. Sylvester Onzivua. "We will need more investigations to get to the bottom of the still-mysterious illness.” Dr. Sylvester Onzivua is one of the Ugandan most famous pathologists involved in the study.

Lord Resistance Army LRA and Ugandan People’s Defense Force UPDF and Invisible Children Initiative


The affected districts are Lamwo, Pader, Kitgum, and Gulu, all in northern Uganda, which was an epicenter of a protracted insurgency of the Lord’s Resistance Army. But it was not only LRA who committed war crimes as there were various rebel armies who fought it out with the Ugandan Army. Amongst them the Ugandan People’s Defense Force. UPDF committed war crimes.


After a film was shown on television, which exposed what the soldiers had been doing, in pictures of cauldrons where people’s arms and legs were “sticking out of the pot.” How prevalent this practice was by the UPDF and how many people they thought might have been made to eat dead people’s brain? 


It was told that soldiers had cooked the dead people’s brain first then the Acholi were made to eat them. There also were the “Invisible Children Initiative” who they claimed are very closely aligned with members of the Ugandan Army. They went on to explain that they were treated far worse by soldiers in the Ugandan Army than by the rebels in the bush.


It was stated these children were being poisoned in some way by something harmful biowarfare agent in food or in the water. The presence of chemical waste or biowarfare agents is used during and after the civil war brought by the UPDF in order to fight the rebels.


It was said that Moammar Kadafi himself may have sent chemical weapons down to Uganda to help Museveni out during the civil war in the north. But another possibility was stated that it was common knowledge around the northern districts that the agent mycotoxin was shipped by the USA towards Africa.

It was discussed in the US Senate which is in compliance with previous articles published on our blog. Professionals in biowarfare techniques in Kampala remembered that the UPDF had used chemical warfare during the civil war as the Belgians did in Rwanda and the Congo.


A final surprising twist was that many believed the children could have been poisoned by the food that they had been given to eat daily in the Internal Displacement Camps which is also in compliance with publications on our blog.


The villagers in the region certainly made a case for the presence of poisons: when they reminded us that when heavy metals and chemical poisons are present in food supplies it is the young, the old, and the sick who are affected first. Maybe the children with Nodding Disease were the ones who were most susceptible to whatever was in the food, bedding, or water.


It was discussed that the Ugandan government wanted to punish the Acholi for backing the previous president of Uganda and half felt that it had not been done on purpose but that the government was doing everything in its power to make sure that no one found out- even if it meant letting these children die.


It is a fact that the government has refused to provide the resources it should have offered. It was the Ugandan government itself who ruled out the discussion about mycotoxin at the mentioned Nodding Disease meeting, and it has been infecting young children for a few years now but as of this year, 34 adults have been diagnosed with the disease. The disease continues to spread throughout the region.


Archives of articles about Mycotoxin on this blog:



Belgian Flemish professor Geert Haesaert


In research projects (3000 - 3500 of 11514) by the Belgian Flemish professor Geert Haesaert, (Ghent University College), we found evidence that a preliminary screening was carried out to study a possible link between mycotoxins and nodding disease. 


A very thorough evaluation of diet components is carried out with the focus on mold infections and mycotoxins in affected districts as they described in an upgrade about the knowledge of food safety in general and mycotoxins in particularly. 


Therefore, they have strengthened the capacity of Ugandan researchers and lecturers in conducting mycotoxin risk assessment, mycotoxin analysis methods and prevention techniques to reduce mycotoxin exposure.


We believe that because of inside knowledge of Ugandan government and the USA about the application of mycotoxin during the LRA war, the report of the first International Scientific Meeting on Nodding Syndrome, mycotoxin was ruled out for any discussion.


Neglected disease Nodding Syndrome Report: Kampala 2012.



Thousands of nodding diseases victims need answers


Nodding disease may affect up to 10. 000 or more children and adolescents from South Sudan, Tanzania, Liberia, and Uganda. However, the true burden of the syndrome in the four countries is unknown and requires systematic documentation.


Fungal contamination of local food, water, and environment need further investigations but the fact is this was also ruled out by the congress who even stated; “Investigations to date have not indicated an association with fungal contamination of local food, but they have not been thorough or systematic enough to consider mycotoxins and therefore ruled out as a cause or contributing factor for nodding disease.”


Strange exchange from Western food to Ugali food


The act of eating local food triggered head-nodding or even a grand mal seizure. Study of one female subject who reliably began to nod within minutes commencing to eat local food prepared from maize (ugali) was able to follow commands to stand, walk, turn and sit while continuing to eat with head nodding. 

Strangely, head nodding was not induced when eating a western candy bar but the movement disorder promptly re-appeared after she switched back to ugali.


Further investigations showed that the human population may be exposed to regular doses of a wide spectrum of highly toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, and hepatotoxic mycotoxins, through the consumption of maize meal.

Summarizing the Ugandan congress: “The clinical manifestations of nodding syndrome did not appear consistent with any known dietary toxin. Although head nodding was commonly triggered by the act of eating the local diet and a tremorgenic mycotoxin cannot be ruled out.


There is an urgent need for larger studies to elucidate the etiology and optimal treatment for these children. Additional consideration of dietary and non-infectious environmental factors associated with Nodding Syndrome will be reported elsewhere.”

Statement to the Ugandan nodding disease congress

As far as our scientific research is concerned, food samples were analyzed for resident mycoflora, and some mycotoxins associated with key fungal species. Important fungal species isolated from the flour included Aspergillus flavus, A. sulphureus, Fusarium moniliform, Penicillium stoloniferum, and P. cyclopium. 


All the three brands of flour were contaminated with Aflatoxins B1 and B2 (0.4-20 ug/kg), Ochratoxin A(50-1,500 ug/kg), and Zearalenone (2,500 - 5,000 ug/kg). Ochratoxin A was the most prevalent mycotoxin. These data provides a warning that the mycotoxin contamination problem in maize meal is critical and consumers' health is at risk.


Therefore, rigorous monitoring of mycotoxins in food, water, and environment should be pursued. If possible, food products should be subjected to stiff microbial quality control from the farm gate to the market shelf. 

Above all the application of biowarfare, agent mycotoxin is involved and the Ugandan government should inform their citizens about the real cause of nodding disease.

Opinion of the writers of this blog

According to our research, the congress ruled out mycotoxin in the discussion but try to convince us that mycotoxins are not involved.


Mycotoxins such as Citrinin, which especially affects the reproductive system of African women, is also used in order to confirm with depopulation programs.


If a continent is poor shouldn't be taken as an opportunity to inflict diseases then blamed on poverty. The US shipment of lethal food poisoning to Belgian Congo and Rwanda was already discussed in the sixties by the US senate Majority leader Mike Mansfield as described in.




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